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Saturday, November 21, 2009

HINDI LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE -- Introduction and History

Hindi is the name given to an Indo-Aryan language, or a dialect continuum of languages, spoken in northern and central India (the "Hindi belt") Native speakers of Hindi dialects between them account for 41% of the Indian population (2001 Indian census). As defined in the Constitution, Hindi is one of the two official languages of communication (English being the other) for India's federal government and is one of the 22 scheduled languages specified in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution.Official Hindi is often described as Standard Hindi, which along with English, is used for administration of the central government. Hindustani or Standard Hindi is also an official language of Fiji.

Standard Hindi is a sanskritised register derived from the khari boli dialect. Urdu is a different, persianised register of the same dialect.

History: Like many other modern Indian languages, Hindi has evolved from Sanskrit, by way of the Middle Indo-Aryan Prakrit languages and Apabhramsha of the Middle Ages. Though there is no consensus for a specific time, Hindi originated as local dialects such as Braj, Awadhi and finally Khari Boli after the turn of tenth century.[9] In the span of nearly a thousand years of Muslim influence, such as when Muslim rulers controlled much of northern India during the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, many Persian and Arabic words were absorbed into khari boli and was called Urdu. Since almost all Arabic words came via Persian, they do not preserve the original phonology of Arabic.

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USEFUL WEBSITES ON HINDI LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
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